Do you qualify to file a Fire Fighting Foam (AFFF) lawsuit?
- Have you been exposed to AFFF or Fire Fighting Foam?
- Have been diagnosed with cancer, including kidney, testicular, ovarian, breast, prostate, lymphoma or leukemia?
AFFF Lawsuit Updates – September 2023
September 18, 2023 – Progress expected soon in AFFF Lawsuit Cases
While the municipality water contamination lawsuits against companies such as 3M, Dupont, and others works its way towards resolution, we expect movement shortly after with respect to individual cases, such as firefighters. It is possible that we may see a bellwether trial (or test case) in the next few months. In multi-district litigation cases such as this, typically tens of thousands of cases are filed in one federal court. Only a few cases are actually selected for trial. These bellwether trials are used to gauge how juries will react to evidence and testimony and often the set the basis for future settlement negotiations for the remaining cases. Our firm is still taking cases of those who had direct exposure to AFFF firefighting foam and we later diagnosed with certain illnesses such as cancer and others like ulcerative colitis.
Firefighting Foam (AFFF) Lawsuit Background Information
Firefighting foam, or AFFF (aqueous film-forming foam), is a synthetic foam that is used to put out class B fires (fires in flammable gases or liquids, such as gasoline). It was developed in the 1960s by the US Navy and has since been used to extinguish fires at military facilities, oil tankers, chemical plants, fire departments, airports, flammable liquid storage facilities, etc.
Some AFFF firefighting foams contain PFAS (per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances), nicknamed “forever chemicals”. PFAS chemicals are known to remain in the human body, as well as the environment, indefinitely. PFAS substances in firefighting foam have been linked to water contamination and serious health conditions in people who have been exposed to them.
If you have symptoms that could be caused by firefighting foam, you may be able to file a lawsuit and claim compensation. Contact King Law today to check if you’re eligible for a case.
You may see some of the manufacturers of PFAS-containing AFFF below:
|Manufacturer||Product Name||Current State|
|3M||Lightwater||No longer produced (as of 2002)|
|Ansul, subsidiary of Tyco||Ansulite||Still produced|
|National Foam, Inc., subsidiary of Kidde-Fenwall||Aer-O-Lite|
Table of Contents:
What Is Firefighting Foam Made Of?
There are 2 classes of firefighting foams, named after the class of fire they are meant to put out:
- Class A firefighting foams are used to extinguish “ordinary combustibles” such as paper, cloth, rubber, wood, and many types of plastic. Class A foams are commonly used to combat wildfires. Class A foams are mainly made of synthetic surfactants and do not contain PFAS. Class A foams soak into burning fuel in a way water would not. This means a fire is less likely to restart than if water alone was used. They are not effective on burning liquids.
- Class B foams are used to extinguish flammable liquids (NFPA considers liquids with a flash point under 100°F flammable). Common examples of flammable liquids are gasoline, oil, diesel, acetone, and propane, as well as alcohols.
- Water is heavier than many flammable liquids so if you spray water on e.g. gasoline, the gasoline floats to the top and keeps burning. Class B foam forms a layer above a burning liquid preventing oxygen from reaching the fuel.
- There are 4 types of Class B foam:
- Protein foams (don’t contain “forever chemicals”)
- Synthetic fluorine-free foams (also don’t contain “forever chemicals”),
- AFFF, which contains PFAS giving it properties for quickly covering liquids
- Alcohol-resistant aqueous film-forming foams (AR-AFFF) which are (as the name suggests) resistant to alcohol, which can break down bubbles.
Firefighting Foam Cancer Lawsuits
Firefighting aqueous film-forming foam (AFFF) may contain the PFAS compounds;
perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS). There is no way to excrete PFAS compounds and their carbon-fluorine bonds are very hard to break down so they accumulate in the body. This accumulation of PFAS can cause illness e.g. thyroid diseases and several types of cancer.
Some of the health conditions that have been linked to AFFF firefighting foam include:
- Increased cholesterol levels
- Decreased vaccine response in children
- Changes in liver enzymes and liver damage
- Changes in the immune system
- Fertility issues
- Changes in fetal and child development
- Decreased weight in newborn babies and infants
- Increased risk of high blood pressure
- Increased risk of asthma
- Increased risk of developing cancer
The following illnesses have been linked to PFAS exposure:
- Colorectal Cancer
- Kidney Cancer
- Kidney Disease
- Thyroid Cancer
- Thyroid Disease
- Testicular Cancer
- Pancreatic Cancer
- Prostate Cancer
- Bladder Cancer
- Liver cancer
- Ulcerative Colitis
- Uterine Cancer
Since the potential side effects of AFFF exposure can be severe, it should come as no surprise that those affected may want to file an AFFF lawsuit. There are over 4,790 plaintiffs in firefighter foam lawsuits as of June 2023.
Companies that supplied AFFF firefighting foam to fire departments, military bases, airports, and others are the defendants named in AFFF lawsuits. These companies include 3M, AGC Chemicals, Amerex Corp., Archroma, Badger, Chemdesign Products, Chemours, Chemguard, Chubb Fire, Corteva, Inc., DuPont, Deep Water Chemicals, Dynax Corporation, Perimeter Solutions, Solberg, Tyco Fire Products, United Technologies Corp., UTC Fire & Security, and more.
Since AFFFs have been part of firefighters’ tool kits and training for decades, many firefighters have had significant exposure and so are at greater risk of suffering ill effects.
Firefighting foam lawsuits claim defendants knew or should have known that PFAS in AFFF can cause significant health problems.
Firefighting foam class action lawsuit
When many plaintiffs are making similar claims their lawsuits are often consolidated into a single lawsuit called a class action lawsuit. This has not happened for the AFFF lawsuits because the claims are not similar enough; people came into contact with AFFF in different ways and have different illnesses. But the AFFF lawsuits have been consolidated in a different sense, into a multidistrict litigation (MDL). This is sometimes referred to as the AFFF class action lawsuit in an abuse of language. This means that all the cases will go in front of a single judge who will deal with discovery and pre-trial proceedings. But, if the cases go to trial then the will go to trial separately.
Types of AFFF and Modern Alternatives
There are 3 types of AFFF products:
- Legacy PFOS AFFF
- These firefighting foams were produced in the US from the late 1960s until 2002 by 3M and sold under the brand name “Lightwater”. Lightwater AFFF contained PFOS and various precursors that could potentially break down to PFOS and shorter chain PFSAs. Some of these PFSAs are also considered to be persistent.
- Legacy fluorotelomer AFFF (contain some long-chain PFAS)
- These foams were produced in the US from the 1970s until 2016 and encompass all other brands of AFFF besides 3M’s Lightwater. Although these foams are not made with PFOA, according to research published by Backe, Day and Field, they contain polyfluorinated precursors that are shown to break down into PFOA and other PFCAs in the natural environment.
- Modern fluorotelomer AFFF (contain almost exclusively short-chain PFAS)
- Following the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) 2010/2015 voluntary PFOA Stewardship Program announcement, most manufacturers transitioned to the production of short-chain (C6) fluorotelomer based PFAS. These firefighting foams are called “modern” to distinguish them from the legacy foams.
As it has become clearer and more public that AFFF is dangerous, legislation (PFAS Action Act of 2021) has been passed to reduce its use by Both the US federal government and individual states (and of course other countries). Each business in the area also has its own rules. Some states entirely prohibit the use of AFFF, some do not control it while others allow its use in specific situations where the potential harm it does is thought to be justified by the harm it can prevent by putting out a potentially dangerous (and environmentally hazardous) fire.
Some of the alternatives to AFFF include fluorine-free foam, dry chemical agents and C6 firefighting foam concentrates.
AFFF Exposure Symptoms and Chemicals
People who have been exposed to toxic AFFFs for prolonged periods of time are at a higher risk of developing cancer and other serious conditions. This category includes:
- Firefighters, especially military and airport firefighters
- Residents living near a fire/military base, or airport
- Airport employees and military personnel (because they work where the foam is stored)
- Oil and gas workers (who might be exposed to AFFFs in case of a fire)
Firefighting Foam Exposure Symptoms
Firefighting foam exposure has been linked to various health conditions and the symptoms depend on the particular condition you may have developed. If you believe you’ve been exposed to PFAS in firefighting foam and you’re experiencing side effects, contact your healthcare provider immediately.
Some of the conditions associated with AFFF exposure include: fertility issues, pregnancy-induced hypertension/pre-eclampsia, kidney cancer and testicular cancer.
While there may be no symptoms, the symptoms of pregnancy-induced hypertension/pre-eclampsia may include:
- High blood pressure
- Swelling of feet and hands
- Protein in urine
Some symptoms of kidney cancer include:
- Blood in urine
- Persistent pain in the back or side
- Loss of appetite
Some symptoms of testicular cancer include:
- A lump or enlargement of either testicle
- Pain or discomfort in the testicle(s) or scrotum
- A dull, aching feeling in the abdomen or groin
These are not exhaustive lists of symptoms and these lists are not meant for self-diagnose. If you’re experiencing health problems, contact your doctor and discuss your symptoms with them. If you think your cancer is related to AFFF, you may be eligible for an AFFF cancer lawsuit.
Firefighting Foam Chemicals
PFAS were originally discovered by scientists working at Dupont. One of the reasons they are useful is their unusual surface tension properties. Another reason is that their many carbon-fluorine bonds make them extremely stable (so a fire won’t break them down easily). The problem is this extreme stability also gives them essentially complete resistance to the ways human bodies normally break things down (or the ways things break down in the environment). Humans also have no way of excreting them so once they get inside the body they just stay there, potentially causing an array of serious medical issues.
What isn’t known about PFAS in AFFF
Even though there is sufficient evidence that PFAS in firefighting foam are harmful to humans, there are some things the scientist and the government don’t fully understand yet. For example:
- How to quickly and efficiently detect PFAS in our air, water, soil and fish
- Exactly how harmful PFAS are to people and the environment
- How to remove PFAS from drinking water
- How to properly dispose of PFAS
AFFF and Firefighting Foam Lawyers
If you or your loved one suffered the adverse effects of AFFF, you may be eligible to file a lawsuit, and, if you’re successful, receive financial compensation. It is a complicated process and you will benefit from experienced firefighting foam lawyers by your side. At King Law we are committed to helping build strong cases for people who have been exposed to toxic firefighting foams. Our firm specialises in chemical and water contamination cases, specifically in regard to the military. Our team of experienced attorneys will review your situation and determine if you have a case.
You may be able to file an AFFF lawsuit if you or someone close to you:
- Were exposed to AFFF for a prolonged period of time (i.e worked as a firefighter, airport maintenance crew, factory worker, etc.)
- Have been exposed to toxic firefighting foams
- Were later diagnosed with cancer
Military Facilities with Known or Suspected PFAS Release
If you or your loved one was stationed at one of these facilities for 1 year or longer, you may be able to file a lawsuit. You can also check if your facility has been flagged as associated with PFAS exposure on the EPA’s website (US Environmental Protection Agency) or EWG’s website (Environmental Working Group).
- Air Force Plant 42
- Beale Air Force Base
- Castle Air Force Base
- Channel Islands ANGS
- Edwards Air Force Base
- Fresno ANG Base
- George Air Force Base
- Los Angeles Air Force Base
- March Air Force Base
- March Air Reserve Base
- Mather Air Force Base
- McClellan Air Force Base
- Moffett Field ANG Station
- Norton Air Force Base
- Onizuka Air Force Station
- Ontario ANG Station
- Travis Air Force Base
- Vandenberg Air Force Base
- AFRC Los Alamitos
- Army Aviation Support ARNG Stockton
- Camp Roberts
- Camp San Luis Obispo
- Fort Hunter Liggett
- Fort Irwin
- Fort Ord
- Fresno ARNG TASMG
- Military Ocean Terminal Concord
- Roseville Armory ARNG
- Sacramento AASF
- Sharpe Army Depot
- Sierra Army Depot
- Alameda Naval Complex
- Azusa NCCOSC Morris Dam
- Concord NWS
- Coronado Naval Amphibious Base
- Crows Landing NALF
- Hunter Point NSY
- Long Beach NS
- Long Beach NSY
- Mare Island Naval Complex
- Marine Corps Air Station El Toro
- Marine Corps Air Station Tustin
- Marine Corps Logistics Base Barstow
- MCAGCC Twenty Nine Palms
- MCAS Miramar
- MCB Camp Pendleton
- NAF El Centro
- Naval Air Station Lemoore
- Naval Air Weapons Station China Lake
- Naval Base Ventura County, Point Mugu
- Naval Base Ventura County, Port Hueneme
- Naval Base Ventura County, San Nicolas Island
- NAVBASE Coronado
- NAVBASE Point Loma (SUBBASE)/SPAWAR (SSC)
- NAVBASE San Diego
- NAVCOMTELSTA Stockton
- NAVWPNSTA Seal Beach
- NAVWPNSTA Seal Beach Fallbrook
- NOLF Imperial Beach
- San Diego AUXLNDFLD NAVBASE Coronado
- San Diego FASWTC PAC NAVBASE Point Loma
- San Diego Nise-West NAVBASE Point Loma
- Treasure Island Naval Complex
AFFF Lawsuit Settlement Amounts
It is difficult to predict what your AFFF lawsuit payout will be, since every individual case is different.
A tiered system is used to determine the value of firefighter foam settlements. The top tier is for plaintiffs with the greatest exposure and most serious types of AFF-linked cancer. Lower tiers are for plaintiffs with less exposure and/or less serious types of cancer.
The AFFF multidistrict litigation (MDL 2873) aggregates lawsuits from across the US related to harm caused by AFFF exposure.
You can get some idea of settlement amounts from the results of lawsuits filed for PFAS contamination in drinking water. In 2017 DuPont paid $671 million to thousands of plaintiffs for dumping PFAS in West Virginia’s waterways. In 2022 3M and Wolverine Worldwide were ordered to pay $54 million in a class action lawsuit to residents of Kent County Michigan.
The amount of a firefighting foam settlement could be affected by the amount of AFFF you have been exposed to and what kind of cancer you have and how much your treatment has cost.
How to File a Firefighter Foam Cancer Lawsuit
Your legal process for your AFFF claim will start with a consultation that will determine whether or not you are eligible. After that, you will need to gather as much evidence as possible. Our lawyers will help you determine what evidence to present.
Evidence in AFFF lawsuits may include:
- Medical records and diagnosis
- Employment records
- Personal testimony
- Witness testimonies
- Any other information proving exposure to firefighting foam
Contact our team at King Law and we will guide you through the process.
AFFF Lawsuit Update Timeline
August 8, 2023 – AFFF Firefighting Foam Lawsuit Reaches Milestone with Over 5,000 cases
The lawsuit linking the chemicals in AFFF to certain cancer and other medical conditions has grown to over 5,000 cases. Some of these cases involve contamination of municipal water supplies, while others are related to direct exposure by firefighters. The breakdown of the number of lawsuits filed by firefighters is not known, but is speculated to be the main focus of the litigation moving forward. There is hope that settlements will be reached in 2023 in the AFFF lawsuits. We were recently reminded of the human toll this has taken when the judge overseeing the case approved a motion to substitute a plaintiff who had died while awaiting resolution of his case. His daughter is now the plaintiff and has filed a wrongful death lawsuit.
July 5, 2023 – Nearly 300 cases added to AFFF Lawsuit
In June, nearly 300 more cases were added to the lawsuit bringing the total to approximately 4,800 cases. A recent settlement involving municipal water contamination claims was reached, which represented a large portion of these cases. Progress continues to be made in the individual cases such as those involving firefighters exposed to cancer causing chemicals contained in AFFF.
In a significant development in the AFFF Fire Fighting Foam Multi-District Litigation (MDL) lawsuits, the bellwether (test) trial of City of Stuart, Florida v. 3M Company, initially scheduled for June 5, 2023, has been postponed at the request of the parties. Lawyer for the Plaintiff and the defendant have been engaged in earnest settlement negotiations as they work towards a global resolution of the plaintiffs’ claims. Because of the prospect of significant progress, both parties requested a continuance of the trial, noting that their efforts would be best spent finalizing an agreement. Judge Layn R. Phillips concurred with the parties and ordered a three week postponement, noting the benefits of a comprehensive resolution. The parties are required to provide the judge with weekly updates. Should an agreement remain elusive at the end of the 21 days, the original trial will be rescheduled.
June 2, 2023 – Chemical Companies Reach 1.19 Billion Settlement in U.S. PFAS Water Contamination Lawsuits
Three major chemical producing companies including Chemours, DuPont, and Corteva have agreed to settle lawsuit claims alleging contamination of public water systems with toxic “forever chemicals” for more than $1 Billion. The chemicals causing the contamination included PFAS which is used in firefighting foams known as Aqueous Film Forming Foam (AFFF). Although the companies deny responsibility, the settlement resolves thousands of lawsuits from around the country. Importantly, this settlement does not cover the many personal injury lawsuits that are claimed by those who developed serious illnesses such as cancer due to their exposure to AFFF, including firefighters and military members, among others. Those cases remain ongoing.
The North Carolina House of Representatives has been provided a 61.7 million dollar grant to address PFAS contamination in drinking water. Additionally, Attorney General Josh Stein is actively pursuing litigation against corporations both large and small who are responsible for producing PFAS containing material. North Carolina has also set aside 2 million dollars for a PFAS Recovery Fund to compensate those communities who have been impacted. Notably, House Bill 370 (which seeks a permanent ban on PFAS-containing firefighting foam from everywhere except authorized testing facilities), has received bipartisan support from lawmakers. Furthermore, Senate Bill 658 also proposes that 20 million dollars be allocated for the purposes of research on the risks associated with the use of PFAS, a buyback program for those firefighting foams that contain PFAS, and to replace those foams with PFAS-free alternatives. Lastly, the bill calls for an additional 4 million dollars to study the health effects of PFAS contamination in drinking water. This is great news considering that both bills seem to indicate progress in North Carolina in the fight against PFAS exposure and dedicated commitment to the preservation of public health.
April 23, 2023 – CDC Launches Firefighter Registry For Cancer
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), along with the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), have recently started an online enrollment process for firefighters in the United States called the National Firefighter Registry (NFR) for Cancer. This new initiative has set out to raise awareness and provide education about the increased potential for cancer in firefighters. Specifically, this initiative includes information on those cancers that are caused by Aqueous Film Forming Foam (AFFF). The NFR will also collect facts and other important details about the work performed by the firefighters in order to link that information with each state’s cancer registry data. Every firefighter in the United States is encouraged to enroll whether they have been diagnosed with cancer or not. Still, enrollment is optional and should only take approximately 30 minutes to complete. In this way, the NFR hopes to gain further insight into the dangers of cancer among firefighters, to reduce the number of firefighters who get cancer, and including those groups of people who have historically been underrepresented throughout previous research.
April 5, 2023 – North Carolina town of West Tisbury Joins PFAS MDL Lawsuit
The West Tisbury select board reached a unanimous decision to enter into a multidistrict litigation case centered around per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) – a group of chemicals. The decision to participate in the lawsuit was spurred by a state report in January that identified the West Tisbury fire department as the source of dangerously high levels of PFAS in private water wells located nearby, due to the use of firefighting foam (AFFF). The lawsuit claims that 15 manufacturers from different parts of the United States had deliberately withheld information regarding the dangerousness of their products. PFAS exposure has been linked to serious health conditions including cancer.
On March 14, 2023, the US Environmental Protection Agency proposed the first-ever national drinking water standard for per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), commonly known as “forever chemicals,” which pose a significant threat to human health. This proposal has the potential to drastically impact the drinking water of almost every person in the United States. The proposed rule aims to establish safe drinking water levels for six specific PFAS chemicals, which are persistent synthetic compounds. These chemicals are widespread in the environment and the human body, and prolonged exposure to them can result in severe health complications.
The US Department of Defense has implemented a timeline to eliminate PFAS from firefighting foam with a complete halt to its use by October 2024. This move is in response to hundreds of military sites being polluted by foam used to extinguish jet fuel fires. In addition to it practical application, many firefighters outside of the military have been routinely exposed to AFFF chemicals as a part of their training.
March 10, 2023 – New Lawsuit Filed in AFFF Exposure Case
On March 2nd a new lawsuit was filed dealing with AFFF involving a Dear Park Texas man (Kent v. 3M) who served as a firefighter in the Marine Corps and was regular exposed to the chemicals contained in fire fighting foam (AFFF). The plaintiff makes claims of pain and suffering, injury, and emotional distress due to the development of prostate cancer which he alleges was caused by AFFF exposure. Click here to see the full complaint filed in South Carolina.
A recent article authored by eight leading scientist was published in Science Direct in December 2022 and cited over seventy other studies in support of their position. Due to the persistence of PFASs in the human body and their ability to bioaccumulate, firefighters experience cumulative effects of PFAS-containing AFFF exposure throughout their careers, increasing their risk of developing thyroid, kidney, bladder, testicular, prostate and colon cancers. The study suggests that PFASs may contribute to firefighter cancers, and further research is needed to evaluate the role of occupational PFAS exposure in causing an elevated cancer risk for firefighters. Click here to read the full study.
February 16, 2023 – Important Court Rulings Forthcoming
Rulings with respect to the admissibility of scientific evidence in initial drinking water utility lawsuits involving damages caused by firefighting foam containing PFAS will be forthcoming soon. The first bellwether trial, City of Stuart v. 3M Co., has been scheduled for June 5, and the parties are currently in the final stages of presenting arguments regarding the Daubert standard, which is the criteria that the US District Court for the District of South Carolina should use to evaluate scientific testimony and evidence. These rulings could impact the admissibility of certain scientific evidence in the cancer lawsuits.
The plaintiffs have recently submitted opposition briefs in the forthcoming firefighting foam trial case (City of Stuart v. 3M Co.), countering the defendants’ motion for summary judgment filed last week. The defense asserted that there was no proof connecting their specific AFFF items to the polluted city water. In contrast, the plaintiffs’ response referenced expert testimony ultimately concluding that the exact products in question were a significant contributing source of the tainted water supply. The plaintiffs must establish that there is a factual dispute that requires a jury’s resolution in order to beat the summary judgement motion.
January 18, 2023
The federal multi-district litigation over firefighting AFFF has had 48 new cases added bringing it to a total of 3,387.
January 3, 2023
Three manufacturers of AFFF are motioning that they should be removed as defendants from the first firefighters foam lawsuit to go to trial on the basis that the plaintiff’s expert witnesses have not sufficiently connected the plaintiff’s symptoms with the defendants’ product.
January 1, 2023
3M vows to stop manufacturing forever chemicals by the end of 2025.
Recently, the judge overseeing the AFFF class action lawsuit appointed a mediator to facilitate settlement talks between the parties. These talks will take place prior to the first bellwether trial scheduled for next year. A retired judge, Layn Phillips, has been selected to serve as the mediator. However, this will be a challenging task for Phillips, given the broad scope of the AFFF class action MDL, which includes claims from both firefighters who allege that AFFF products caused their cancer and municipalities who claim that AFFF tainted their water systems. Due to the diverse range of plaintiffs and defendants involved, reaching a global AFFF settlement will be complex. Nonetheless, defendants may be motivated to offer settlement compensation to plaintiffs as a means of resolving some of the AFFF lawsuits. The first bellwether trial is slated for June 2023.
Frequently Asked Questions
Do you qualify to file a Fire Fighting Foam (AFFF) lawsuit?
- Have you been exposed to AFFF or Fire Fighting Foam?
- Have been diagnosed with cancer, including kidney, testicular, ovarian, breast, prostate, lymphoma or leukemia?
Call Our Firefighting Foam Lawyers for Help with Your Claim
At King Law, our personal injury lawyers have extensive experience with AFFF lawsuits, and we will put it to work for you. If you or your loved one was harmed by aqueous film forming foam (AFFF), we are more than ready to help. Call us now at (585) 270-8882 or contact us online to schedule a free consultation and to obtain the sound legal advice you need. From our law office, we handle firefighting foam (AFFF) lawsuits nationwide.
- Class B Fire – Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Class_B_fire
- What are PFAS chemicals? – EWG: https://www.ewg.org/what-are-pfas-chemicals
- Firefighting Foam Chemicals: DOD Is Investigating PFAS and Responding to Contamination, but Should Report More Cost Information – Government Accountability Office: https://www.gao.gov/products/gao-21-421
- NFPA 30 – https://www.nfpa.org/assets/files/aboutthecodes/30/30_faqs.pdf
- What are the health effects of PFAS? – Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry: https://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/pfas/health-effects/index.html
- NTP Monograph: Immunotoxicity Associated with Exposure to Perfluorooctanoic Acid or Perfluorooctane Sulfonate – National Toxicology Program, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services: https://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/sites/default/files/ntp/ohat/pfoa_pfos/pfoa_pfosmonograph_508.pdf
- PFAS – Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances – U.S. Department of veteran Affairs: https://www.publichealth.va.gov/exposures/pfas.asp
- Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA), Perfluorooctane Sulfonate (PFOS), and Related Chemicals – American Cancer Society: https://www.cancer.org/cancer/risk-prevention/chemicals/teflon-and-perfluorooctanoic-acid-pfoa.html
- Zwitterionic, cationic, and anionic fluorinated chemicals in aqueous film forming foam formulations and groundwater from U.S. military bases by nonaqueous large-volume injection HPLC-MS/MS – Will J Backe, Thomas C Day, Jennifer A Field: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23590254/
- Quantitative determination of fluorotelomer sulfonates in groundwater by LC MS/MS – Melissa M Schultz, Douglas F Barofsky, Jennifer A Field: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15074696/
- Identification of Novel Fluorochemicals in Aqueous Film-Forming Foams Used by the US Military – Benjamin J. Place and Jennifer A. Field: https://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/es301465n
- What’s the PFAS Action Act and How Does It Impact Fire Protection – Vanguard Fire & Security: https://vanguard-fire.com/whats-the-pfas-action-act-and-how-does-it-impact-fire-protection/
- PFAS Exposure and Risk of Cancer – National Cancer Institute: https://dceg.cancer.gov/research/what-we-study/pfas
- 710 Military Sites With Known or Suspected Discharges of PFAS – EWG: https://www.ewg.org/interactive-maps/2020-military-pfas-sites/map/
- DuPont settles lawsuits over leak of chemical used to make Teflon – Reuters: https://www.reuters.com/article/us-du-pont-lawsuit-west-virginia/dupont-settles-lawsuits-over-leak-of-chemical-used-to-make-teflon-idUSKBN15S18U
- 3M Gets Preliminary Nod for $54 Million PFAS Dumping Settlement – Bloomberg Law: https://news.bloomberglaw.com/product-liability-and-toxics-law/3m-gets-preliminary-nod-for-54-million-pfas-dumping-settlement
- The New Foam – The magazine of the National Fire Protection Association: https://www.nfpa.org/News-and-Research/Publications-and-media/NFPA-Journal/2022/Fall-2022/Features/Foam#:~:text=While%20the%20amount%20of%20AFFF,federal%20standards%20to%20use%20AFFF
- PFAS-containing firefighting foam – Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources: https://dnr.wisconsin.gov/topic/PFAS/AFFF.html#:~:text=Class%20B%20(and%20class%20A,types%20of%20flammable%20liquid%20fires.
- Identifying and Managing Aqueous Film-Forming Foam-Derived Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances in the Environment – Andrea Leeson, Timothy Thompson, Hans F. Stroo, Richard H. Anderson, Jason Speicher, Marc A. Mills, Janice Willey, Charles Coyle, Rajat Ghosh, Carmen Lebrón, Cara Patton: https://setac.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/etc.4894
- PFAS Explained – United States Environmental Protection Agency: https://www.epa.gov/pfas/pfas-explained
- Report: ‘Forever Chemicals’ Contaminate Drinking Water In Dozens Of Cities – CBS News Chicago: https://www.cbsnews.com/chicago/news/report-forever-chemicals-contaminate-drinking-water-in-dozens-cities/
- DOD Funds Firefighting Foam Research for a PFAS-Free Alternative – U.S. Department of Defense: https://www.defense.gov/News/News-Stories/Article/Article/2018096/dod-funds-firefighting-foam-research-for-a-pfas-free-alternative/#:~:text=Aqueous%20film%2Dforming%20foams%2C%20or,for%20per%2D%20and%20polyfluoroalkyl%20substances
- EPA, U.S. Department of Defense, and State Partners Launch Technical Challenge Seeking Innovative Ways to Destroy PFAS in Firefighting Foam – United States Environmental Protection Agency: https://www.epa.gov/newsreleases/epa-us-department-defense-and-state-partners-launch-technical-challenge-seeking
- Firefighting Foam and PFAS – Michigan PFAS Action Response Team: https://www.michigan.gov/pfasresponse/investigations/firefighting-foam
- Chemours, DuPont, and Corteva Reach Comprehensive PFAS Settlement with U.S. Water Systems – Business Wire: https://www.businesswire.com/news/home/20230602005091/en/Chemours-DuPont-and-Corteva-Reach-Comprehensive-PFAS-Settlement-with-U.S.-Water-Systems
- This article is more than 1 month old Top US chemical firms to pay $1.2bn to settle water contamination lawsuits – The Guardian: https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2023/jun/02/dupont-pfas-settlement-water-chemical-contamination
- 3M Resolves Claims by Public Water Suppliers, Supports Drinking Water Solutions for Vast Majority of Americans – 3M Press release: https://news.3m.com/2023-06-22-3M-Resolves-Claims-by-Public-Water-Suppliers,-Supports-Drinking-Water-Solutions-for-Vast-Majority-of-Americans
- 3M Reaches $10.3 Billion Settlement in ‘Forever Chemicals’ Suits – The New York Times: https://www.nytimes.com/2023/06/22/business/3m-settlement-forever-chemicals-lawsuit.html